Cyanotypes Eric Andersson Kallitypes & vandykes News Paper and artpaper paper cyanotype paper cyanotypes paper for photography paper survey paper vandykebrowns paper vandykes paper ziatypes Platinum and palladiums Special Edition Art Project

Cyanotype, Vandyke Brownprint, Ziatype v1.0 « Cyanotypes « Formulas And How-To « AlternativePhotography.com

Writer and images / Eric Andersson

This detailed paper survey is the Special Version Artwork Undertaking effort to document how papers behave when paired with historic Siderotype processes used in our coastal California working setting. The Siderotype processes Cyanotype (iron), Vandyke Brownprint (silver) aka VDB, and Ziatype (palladium / gold / tungsten / platinum) are the main target of this survey, creating an evaluation of a paper’s image density across publicity corrections, quantity and sort of grain, image bleed, and general colour tonality. The survey was revealed in November 2018 and may also be downloaded as a pdf right here.

Paper Introductions

Correction Ramps
This paper survey is an effort to doc how papers behave when paired with historic Siderotype processes used in our coastal California working setting. The Siderotype processes Cyanotype (iron), Vandyke Brownprint (silver) aka VDB, and Ziatype (palladium / gold / tungsten / platinum) are the main target of this survey, creating an assessment of a paper’s picture density throughout exposure corrections, amount and sort of grain, image bleed, and general colour tonality.

The contact damaging used is just like this constructive image pictured, solely inverted and flipped horizontally in printing so that a true destructive is produced. The picture consists of pairs of Special Edition Artwork Venture (SEAP) exposure corrections applied consecutively to the columns of density ramps, starting from zero% to 100% density in models of 10%. The top columns are linear, with no publicity correction utilized.

The linear ramps present what can be obtained if a digital picture have been merely inverted, printed, and used as a digital destructive. The subsequent pair are corrections for the Silver Gelatin process. Next up is the Cyanotype course of correction, followed by four VDB process corrections. The first of those VDB corrections has a slightly darker spotlight density, adopted by two normal publicity corrections, followed lastly by a barely lighter spotlight density. The final set of four columns are the Ziatype corrections, with the first and fourth being slightly darker and lighter highlights and the center two being an ordinary publicity correction. The ultimate column is again a linear ramp used to bookend the exposure correction check chart.

After amassing knowledge on a handful of papers we updated this check chart, replacing the primary of the Cyanotype corrections with a modified Silver Gelatin correction. This COT320 (c/v) publicity correction is intended to tug out shadow detail and usher in highlight detail for these papers where shadows are crushed and highlights are usually not represented. The identify of this correction comes as a result of COT320 paper’s potential to print both Cyanotype and VDB with a single unfavorable. The second change was to switch the VDB (-) correction, meant to slightly darken the highlights, with a extra pronounced correction referred to as VDB (darkish). Based mostly on the evaluation of paper behaviors, we found a necessity just like COT320 (c/v) for this VDB (darkish) correction, to stop crushed shadows and blown out highlights. This new check chart may be seen within the Canson 100 RGH/CP paper samples. All the Special Edition Art Undertaking characteristic publicity response curves are documented in Appendix B.

The remaining portions of the check chart are meant to gauge image bleed from 100% density into open zero% density, as seen in the framing of the image samples. Lastly, the deliberate use of advantageous white lettering on black for course of identification is to gauge image bleed at the element degree. This check chart supplies telling behavioral traits of the process / paper samples beneath inspection, allowing for an knowledgeable artist and practitioner.

For sample consistency, until otherwise noted, papers have been minimize right down to 7.5×11 then coated with the process emulsion. A constant emulsion mix and amount was used for every process. Drop counts are denoted by , from the Latin “guttae”. Tween 20 10% surfactant was used only for the Fluid HP, Lana Aquarelle, and Hahnemühle Platinum Rag. Solely the Canson 100 RGH/CP used gum arabic as an anti-surfactant. A Richeson 9010 ‘magic’ brush was used because the applicator, offering consistent and uniform emulsion software. After a timed dry-down, the paper was reduce right down to a pair of 5×7 sheets and exposed together to the shortest publicity time, the primary sheet removed and the remaining sheet uncovered to completion, assuring consistency of the paper’s %rH by way of the publicity process. The UV exposure system used is a normal bulb Edwards Engineered Products 18×20 mild supply. Our Santa Cruz California print making facility tends in the direction of a consistent 70 levels Fahrenheit at 60%rH.

Revere, Cartiere Magnani

320gsm, 100% cotton, acid free & non-buffered, cream in tone

Processes – Vandyke Brownprint

Vandyke Brownprint

Bostick & Sullivan liquid Vandyke Brownprint emulsion
2.5ml VDB, 3gt citric acid 40%, 0gt Tween 20 10%
Dry time: 20min air, 20min fan, 40min complete
100% exposure == 7.5min, 2/3rds exposure == 5min

Grain & Bleed


Grain: Exhibits medium grain at both 5min & 7.5min exposures in all density ranges.

Bleed: No considerable border bleeding on either 5min or 7.5min exposures. White text on 100% density is readable without bleed on 5min publicity, very slight bleed into lettering at 7.5min exposure.

Exposure Response

Black: 7.5 minute exposure produces a credibly darker 100% density than the 5min publicity. Even at 7.5min, black is on the dark grey aspect, indicating this paper might use another 30-60s of publicity time.

5min Publicity: Underexposed

7.5min Exposure: Underexposed. Extra publicity time is needed to raised maximize 100% image density. Greatest correction response throughout all corrections, is silver gelatin. With the silver correction, 10% is just too mild and the shadows are crushed.

General: Extra publicity time might assist convey within the highlights throughout the board on all response corrections as well as linear, but have to guarantee the shadows don’t crush more than they already are. The COT320 (c/v) response might be put to play here to stop shadow crushing and convey in the highlights and at a larger than 7.5min publicity.

Assessment

Mid-tone Colour: Cool Impartial brown with 100% density tending toward darkish warm gray
Pantone 7582U, R122 / G104 / B94, HTML 0x7A685E

Fluid HP Watercolor, International Artwork Supplies

300gsm, 140lb, acid free & alkali buffered with calcium carbonate (chalk), Scorching Pressed, white

Fluid HP & Fluid 100 HP scorching press watercolor paper has an affordability, availability, nice wet processing means, and nice picture production for use with these processes. Fluid HP 100 is 100% cotton, shouldn’t be fairly as stiff as the usual HP, holding an image slightly less crisp than the non-cotton scorching press paper. Resultant pictures from Fluid 100 HP tend to return in with deeper and richer tonality. Tween 20 10% at 1gt per 3ml emulsion is needed to get the sensitizer combine to soak into these paper’s fibers. Greatest to use upwards of 1gt per 1ml emulsion of citric acid 40% to each neutralize the carbonate alkali buffer in the paper as well as assist with clearing within the first wash water. Nice wet processing power.

Processes – Cyanotype, Vandyke Brownprint

Cyanotype

  • Metal Blue
  • Std Cyanotype correction with 18-21min exposure
  • Tween required, 1gt / 3ml complete A/B emulsion

Vandyke Brownprint

  • Warm sepia
  • Std VDB correction with 7.5min exposure
  • Tween required, 1gt / 3ml complete emulsion

Cyanotype

Bostick & Sullivan (B&S) Powdered Package

Bostick & Sullivan A/B power of 25g/100ml (A) & 10g/100ml (B)
1.5ml emulsion each A & B, 3gt citric acid 40%, 1gt Tween 20 10%
Dry time: 30min air, 30min fan, 60min complete
100% publicity == 21min, 2/3rds exposure == 14min

Phototographer’s Formulary (PF) Liquid Package

Photographer’s Formulary Cyanotype A/B liquid emulsion
1.5ml emulsion each A & B, 3gt citric acid 40%, 1gt Tween 20 10%
Dry time: 30min air, 30min fan, 60min complete
100% publicity == 21min, 2/3rds publicity == 14min

Grain & Bleed

Grain: Exhibits grain at both 14min & 21min exposures in all density ranges. 2-3gt/3ml emulsion of Tween could also be wanted over the 1gt/3ml emulsion used in this survey to scale back the grain/scratchy image outcome and better soak within the citric acid used to neutralize the alkali buffer.

Bleed: No bleeding on 14min or 21min exposure between 100% to zero% at border space. White lettering on 100% density is visible with little bleed onto lettering. 21min exposure barely extra so on the white lettering. Higher preliminary wash agitation might scale back a few of this bleed.

Publicity Response

Bostick & Sullivan Powdered Package

Black: 14min is barely less black than 21min publicity to create 100% densities.

White: At 14min the Cyanotype correction 0% meets paper white. At 21min zero% is seeing just some % above paper white.

14min Publicity: Underexposed for the Cyanotype correction with all others not even close.

21min Publicity: The Cyanotype correction is greatest for this paper at 21min.

General: With an publicity on the order of 21min with the Cyanotype correction, this paper and chemistry mixture does a superb job representing the complete 100% to 0% density range. Control paper white at 0% or regulate the response curve a tad to lighten the 0% mark.

Photographer’s Formulary Liquid Package

Black: 14min is slightly less black than 21min exposure to create 100% densities.

White: At 14min the Cyanotype correction 0% is simply shy of paper white. At 21min the Cyanotype correction is seeing upwards of 5% density at paper white with the correction being overexposed at 10% density.

14min Publicity: Slightly underexposed for the Cyanotype correction with all others not even close. The Cyanotype correction is greatest for this paper at greater than 14min and fewer than 21min.

21min Publicity: Overexposed with the Cyanotype correction across the density range with 10% coming in a lot too dark.

General: With an publicity range of 16-18min utilizing the Cyanotype correction, this paper and chemistry mixture does a fantastic job representing the complete 100% to 0% density vary. Regulate paper white at zero% or regulate the exposure curve a tad to lighten the 0% mark

Assessment

Fluid HP is remarkably incompatible with Mike Ware’s New Cyanotype. Even with using 40% citric acid to neutralize the paper’s alkali buffers this paper will self-develop in a matter of hours, turning from healthy yellow/green to a uselessly uncovered green/blue. This paper is just not value further consideration with New Cyanotype on account of unexposed emulsion colour change indicating incompatibility.

For a given publicity, the PF A/B liquid package leads to an image slightly extra dense at all percentages than with the B&S powdered package chemistry, even with the powder package matching the Formulary’s documented mix percentages. Curious that the 14min PF paper 100% density is lighter than the 14min B&S mix while at the similar time retaining the density ranges proportionally darker with the PF mix. All different characterizations, grain, bleed, tone, between B&S & PF chemistry are the identical with the Fluid paper. The PF chemistry merely has a shorter publicity time requirement.

The graceful scorching press paper texture produces effective grain, and may like a tad more than 1gt/3ml emulsion of Tween surfactant to raised the grain results. Good tonal range and cleared properly to paper white. Cyanotype response is the performer with Fluid papers. Tonality extra muted when compared to Cot320 or Platine coming in at a Steel Blue tone. The usual cyanotype response could possibly be slightly more conservative about letting 0% density attain paper white.

Mid-tone Shade: Prussian Blue with a Metal Blue hue
Pantone 544U mids, R151 / G193 / B223, HTML 0x97C1DF
Pantone 7689U darkish mids, R86 / G147 / B193, HTML 0x5693C1

Vandyke Brownprint

Bostick & Sullivan liquid Vandyke Brownprint emulsion
2.5ml VDB, 3gt citric acid 40%, 1gt Tween 20 10%
Dry time: 20min air, 20min fan, 40min complete
100% exposure == 7.5min, 2/3rds publicity == 5min

Grain & Bleed

Grain: Exhibits very wonderful grain at both 5min & 7.5min exposures in all density ranges.

Bleed: Slight bleeding on 5min exposure with some runoff at 100% to zero% at border area. White lettering on 100% density is readable with slight bleed onto lettering. 7.5min exposure bleed more pronounced at 100% to 0% border crossing. White lettering on 100% density is barely readable. This paper wants an agitated preliminary wash cycle to assist mitigate bleed points.

Publicity Response

Black: 7.5 minute exposure produces an ever so slightly darker 100% density than the lesser 5min exposure.

5min Exposure: Underexposed from the VDB correction perspective. Ziatype (-) can be the perfect response for this exposure time.

7.5min Exposure: Greatest response is the usual VDB. Subsequent greatest is commonplace Ziatype producing a density vary barely shifted towards the shadows, so again degree shifting can be required.

General: At 5min, the Ziatype (-) response could also be an excellent compromise between most density and much lowered bleeding into the highlights. The downside is the density vary tends in the direction of the darks with the lighter densities underrepresented. At 7.5min, the usual VDB correction is known as for as an applicable response curve. The VDB (dark) correction may be good for some courses of photographs.

Evaluation

This paper produces a effective grained basic Vandyke Brownprint sepia picture and takes superbly to gold / silver alternative with POP gold salt firming strategies.

Mid-tone Colour: Warm silver sepia brown
Pantone 7567U, R144 / G112 / B92, HTLM 0x90705C

Rising Stonehenge, Legion Paper

250gsm, 90lb, 100% cotton, acid free & alkali buffered with calcium carbonate (chalk), Scorching Pressed, white.

Processes – Vandyke Brownprint

Vandyke Brownprint

Bostick & Sullivan liquid Vandyke Brownprint emulsion
2.5ml VDB, 3gt citric acid 40%, 0gt Tween 20 10%
Dry time: 20min air, 20min fan, 40min complete
100% publicity == 7.5min, 2/3rds publicity == 5min

Grain & Bleed

Grain: Exhibits high quality grain at both 5min & 7.5min exposures in all density ranges. Paper itself has a bit of texture to it which seems to visually manifest as grain.

Bleed: Bleeding on 5min publicity producing runoff of 100% to zero% at border space. White lettering on 100% density is simply barely seen with vital bleed onto lettering. 7.5min exposure bleed is just like the 5min exposure characterization with extra bleed into the nice white lettering.

Exposure Response

Black: 7.5min exposure produces an ever so barely darker 100% density than the lesser 5min exposure.

5min Exposure: Slightly below uncovered from the VDB correction perspective while being the most effective response for this publicity time.

7.5min Exposure: Slightly overexposed, producing loads of image bleed and crushed shadows throughout the correction responses.

General: The VDB (darkish) exposure correction at lower than 7.5min is the proper path.

Assessment

Mid-tone Shade: Warm silver sepia brown, tending towards neutral
Pantone 7568U, R130 / G109 / B94, HTML 0x826D5E

Arches Platine, Canson

310gsm, 140lb, Scorching Pressed, vibrant white.

Processes – Cyanotype, Vandyke Brownprint

Cyanotype

Bostick & Sullivan A/B energy of 25g/100ml (A) & 10g/100ml (B)
1.5ml emulsion each A & B, 3gt citric acid 40%, 0gt Tween 20 10%
Dry time: 30min air, 30min fan, 60min complete
100% exposure == 21min, 2/3rds exposure == 14min

Grain & Bleed


Grain: Exhibits very positive however inconsistent grain at both 14min & 21min exposures in all density ranges. Paper has little or no texture and produces an outstanding image.

Bleed: No bleeding on 14min or 21min publicity between 100% to 0% at border space. White lettering on 100% density is seen with very little bleed onto lettering. 21min publicity bleed is ever so slight between 100% and the white lettering. An aggravated preliminary wash might handle this minor bleeding.

Exposure Response

Black: 14min and 21min exposure produce very comparable 100% densities.

White: Silver, VDB, and Ziatpe corrections all cleared to 0% density, excluding an general delicate blueing remedy seen on prime of paper white.

14min Exposure: Overexposed for the Silver correction, underexposed for the VDB correction, the Cyanotype horrendously incorrect, and Ziatype crushing its shadows white bringing within the highlights. Greatest correction is VDB with shadows tending to be crushed. Subsequent up is the Silver correction with extra correction needed in the shadows to stop crushing and a decrease exposure to lighten the highlights.

21min Publicity: Slightly overexposed with the VDB correction with the shadows badly crushed. As with the 14min exposure, have to brighten the shadows when utilizing this paper and the VDB correction.

General: Utilizing the VDB (darkish) correction to brighten up the shadows whereas darkening the highlights with an publicity upwards or 16-18min can be an excellent recipe. With an exposure less than 14min, the Silver response is perhaps the best way to go so long as 100% density stays 100% and the shadows are de-crushed. The COT320 (v/c) correction may work out on this case.

Assessment

Performs very equally to COT320 in lots of respects, general barely extra dense for both publicity occasions. Unable to clear to paper white, leaving a very mild blue tint on the paper (very similar to a delicate blueing remedy).

Mid-tone Colour: Sky blue highlights to Bleu de France
Pantone 290U mild mids, R167 / G212 / B238, HTML 0xA7D4EE
Pantone 641U darkish mids, R0 / G120 / B167, HTML 0x0078A7

Vandyke Brownprint

Bostick & Sullivan liquid Vandyke Brownprint emulsion
2.5ml VDB, 3gt citric acid 40%, 0gt Tween 20 10%
Dry time: 20min air, 20min fan, 40min complete
100% exposure == 7.5min, 2/3rds publicity == 5min

Grain & Bleed


Grain: Exhibits vital grain at both 5min & 7.5min exposures in all density ranges, extra so than Revere. Tween might assist in this regard to drive emulsion into the paper’s fibers.

Bleed: No bleed on 5min exposure between 100% to 0% at border areas. White lettering on 100% density is nicely seen with no bleed onto lettering. 7.5min exposure also exhibits no bleed from 100% to zero% density areas. White lettering is barely blocked up. Larger agitation in initial wash might scale back this slight bleed into positive details.

Publicity Response

Black: 7.5 minute exposure produces a darker 100% density than the 5min exposure.

5min Exposure: Doesn’t carry out nicely with any of the exposure response curves. All are underexposed with no illustration of highlights or mid-tones.

7.5min Publicity: Underexposed in highlights and crushed shadows throughout the correction responses. Probably the most serviceable publicity response is for Silver, with compromised highlights as all tones are shifted in the direction of the shadows till 20% the place they then merely blow out to white.

General: This paper merely wants a significantly totally different response curve for VDB relative to the other papers and processes. With the 5min exposure, its lack of bleed, dark neutral silver sepia shade, its capability to get close to full 100% density, grain as its main downside, this paper could also be well worth the creation of a special VDB response correction or a correction on prime of one that’s close.

Assessment

Arches Platine 310gsm with VDB doesn’t play properly with the VDB exposure response because it crushes shadow detail into the blacks and is unable to characterize highlights with any efficacy. Very clean and detailed photographs with a satin, yet inconsistent, grain. Good moist processing power. Does not need Tween, although it might assist with a number of the grain inconsistencies.

Mid-tone Colour: Neutral silver sepia brown with 100% density tending toward warm black
Pantone 7582U, R122 / G104 / B94, HTML 0x7A685E

Lana Aquarelle, Lana Paper Mill

140lb, Scorching Pressed, pure in shade

Processes – Cyanotype, Vandyke Brownprint

Cyanotype

  • Metal Blue
  • Std Cyanotype correction with 16-18min exposure
  • Fairly grainy even with additional Tween in an attempt to scale back grain artifacting
  • Tween needed

Vandyke Brownprint

  • Warm sepia
  • Std VDB correction or VDB (dark) with 7.5min exposure
  • Tween required, 1gt / 3ml complete emulsion

Cyanotype

Bostick & Sullivan A/B energy of 25g/100ml (A) & 10g/100ml (B)
1.5ml emulsion each A & B, 3gt citric acid 40%, 1gt Tween 20 10%
Dry time: 30min air, 30min fan, 60min complete
100% exposure == 21min, 2/3rds publicity == 14min

Grain & Bleed


Grain: Exhibits vital grain at each 14min & 21min exposures in all density ranges. Paper has a nice texture, much less of scorching press and more in the direction of cold press after processing and dry down. Further Tween at 3gt/3ml added in a separate check didn’t scale back the grain / scratchy artifacts.

Bleed: No bleeding on 14min or 21min publicity between 100% to zero% at border area. White lettering on 100% density is marginally visible with little bleed onto lettering. 21min publicity barely extra so on the white lettering. Stronger initial wash agitation might scale back this degree of bleed.

Publicity Response

Black: 14min is barely less black than 21min exposure to create 100% densities.

White: At 14min the Cyanotype correction 0% is paper white. At 21min the Cyanotype correction is just starting to some density at 0% white with the correction being overexposed.

14min Publicity: Barely underexposed for the Cyanotype correction with all others not even shut. The Cyanotype correction is greatest for this paper at greater than 14min and less than 21min.

21min Publicity: Overexposed with the Cyanotype throughout the density range.

General: With an publicity approaching 16-18min using the Cyanotype correction, this paper does a effective job representing the complete 100% to 0% density vary.

Assessment

Good paper texture, wanting more like a chilly press paper after processing than the recent press it’s. Produces vital grain (or as B&S says “scratchy”). An experiment with extra Tween at 3gt/3ml didn’t help scale back the grain. Good tonal vary and cleared nicely to paper white. Cyanotype response is the performer very similar to with Fluid papers. Tonality more muted when compared to COT320 or Platine and intently matches that of Fluid HP Metal Blue.

Mid-tone Colour: Steel Blue
Pantone 544U mild mids, R151 / G193 / B223, HTML 0x97C1DF
Pantone 7689U dark mids, R86 / G147 / B193, HTML 0x5693C1

Vandyke Brownprint

Bostick & Sullivan liquid Vandyke Brownprint emulsion
2.5ml VDB, 3gt citric acid 40%, 1gt Tween 20 10%
Dry time: 20min air, 20min fan, 40min complete
100% exposure == 7.5min, 2/3rds exposure == 5min

Grain & Bleed


Grain: Exhibits nice grain at each 5min & 7.5min exposures in all density ranges. Paper itself has a little bit of texture to it which visually manifests as grain.

Bleed: Slight bleeding on 5min exposure producing runoff of 100% to 0% at border space. White lettering on 100% density is simply seen with bleed onto lettering. 7.5min publicity bleed is more vital than the 5min exposure characterization with picture bleed obliterating the white lettering. A lot better preliminary wash water agitation is needed to scale back nearly all of bleeding points. Longer exposures worsen the bleeding situation.

Publicity Response

Black: 7.5 minute exposure produces an ever so barely darker 100% density compared to the 5 min publicity.

5min Exposure: Performs greatest with the Ziatype (-) publicity response curve for a lighter general density. The Silver response brings within the highlights, however the general density response is skewed towards the darks. The VDB correction is skewed towards the shadows, leaving the highlights to endure. Silver correction at lower than 5min might be a play here.

7.5min is sort of simply overexposed throughout the publicity response curves. Crushed shadows throughout the correction responses and blown highlights with the VDB response, greatest with the std Ziatpype adjustment.

General: An publicity between 5min and 7.5min utilizing the VDB (dark) correction will open the shadows and convey in the highlights to supply a consistent density vary. At an publicity closer to 5min or much less, the COT320 (v/c) correction might produce good results.

Evaluation

Lana Aquarelle prints in the direction of impartial heat with VDB. Has some sudden grain, particularly compared to Arches Platine. Good wet processing power. The VDB (darkish) publicity correction is a superb place to start out for consistent densities. This paper takes superbly to gold / silver alternative with POP gold salt toning strategies.

Mid-tone Shade: Cool Neutral brown with 100% density tending towards heat black
Pantone 7596U, R119 / G103 / B96, HTML 0x776760

Arches Aquarelle, Canson

300gsm, 140lb, Scorching Pressed, 100% cotton, natural in colour

Processes – Vandyke Brownprint

Vandyke Brownprint

Bostick & Sullivan liquid Vandyke Brownprint emulsion
2.5ml VDB, 3gt citric acid 40%, 0gt Tween 20 10%
Dry time: 20min air, 20min fan, 40min complete
100% publicity == 7.5min, 2/3rds publicity == 5min

Grain & Bleed


Grain: Exhibits high quality grain at each 5min & 7.5min exposures in all density ranges with slightly mottling randomly across the picture floor. Paper has little or no texture.

Bleed: No bleeding on 5min exposure between 100% to zero% at border space. White lettering on 100% density is just visible with bleed onto lettering. 7.5min publicity bleed is actually non-existent between 100% to zero% at border space (aside from a few localized areas that just couldn’t include themselves). There’s picture bleed obliterating the white lettering.

Higher initial wash water agitation is required to scale back the border space bleeding points. Unclear if the lettering problem may be mitigated w/o going to a shorter publicity time.

Publicity Response

Black: 5min and 7.5min exposures produce very comparable 100% densities.

5min Publicity: Underexposed across the board with highlights not ever reaching their talents. The Silver correction is greatest but tends to crush the shadows and blow out the highlights.

7.5min Publicity: Fairly simply overexposed across the response curves with crushed shadows and highlights never coming into play. There isn’t a greatest correction right here at 7.5min exposure because the ‘fix’ is to scale back the publicity time closer to 5min and correct for this paper’s specific density ramp.

General: With exposure between 5min and seven.5min and utilizing the the COT320 (c/v) or VDB (dark) exposure corrections, there could also be a standard floor where density ranges appear pure and highlights start the are available.

Assessment

This paper is usually a participant when using the COT320 (c/v) or VDB (darkish) exposure corrections to realize a visually pure density range. The caution is the mottling in the grain ensuing in this paper’s specific look.

Mid-tone Shade: Warm silver sepia brown
Pantone 154U, R146 / G104 / B68, HTML 0x926844

COT 320, Bergger

320gsm, Scorching Pressed, 100% cotton, pure white (cream)

Processes – Cyanotype, Vandyke Brownprint, Ziatype

Cyanotype

  • Sky blue highlights to Bleu de France mid-tones, producing an outstanding image
  • New VDB (dark) correction at 14min exposure
  • No Tween needed

Vandyke Brownprint

  • Darkish neutral sepia
  • New COT320 (c/v) or VDB (dark) correction with 4-5min publicity
  • No Tween wanted

Ziatype

  • Commonplace Ziatype correction with ±5min exposure
  • Produces an outstanding picture with consistent high quality grain
  • No Tween wanted

Cyanotype

Bostick & Sullivan A/B energy of 25g/100ml (A) & 10g/100ml (B)
1.5ml emulsion each A & B, 3gt citric acid 40%, 0gt Tween 20 10%
Dry time: 30min air, 30min fan, 60min complete
100% publicity == 21min, 2/3rds exposure == 14min

Grain & Bleed


Grain: Exhibits very nice consistent grain at both 14min & 21min exposures in all density ranges. Paper has very little texture.

Bleed: No bleeding on 14min or 21min exposure between 100% to 0% at border space. White lettering on 100% density is seen with little or no bleed onto lettering. 21min exposure bleed is ever so slight between 100% and the white lettering. Better initial wash agitation might tackle this. Unable to clear to paper white as a very mild blue tint stays on the paper after processing, very similar to a delicate blueing remedy.

Exposure Response

Black: 14min and 21min publicity produce very comparable 100% densities.

Silver, VDB, and Ziatpe all cleared to 0% density (excluding the general delicate blueing remedy of the paper).

14min Exposure: Barely overexposed for the Silver correction, slightly underexposed for the VDB correction, the Cyanotype horrendously incorrect, and Ziatype crushing its shadows. Greatest correction is VDB with shadows tending to be crushed, so greatest to start out off with the VDB (dark) correction to deliver out the shadows and symbolize the highlights. Next up is the Silver correction with more correction to the shadows to stop crushing.

21min Publicity: Slightly overexposed with the VDB correction with the shadows flippantly crushed. As with the 14min publicity, have to brighten the shadows when using this paper and the VDB correction.

General: With an exposure between 14min and 21min and using the VDB (dark) or the COT320 (c/v) corrections, there’s a widespread floor the place density ranges seem pure and highlights come into play.

Evaluation

Produces an outstanding superb grained and brilliantly coloured picture. Paper is properly behaved in publicity and wet processing. Want to completely perceive how greatest to clear the last vestiges of bluing from the paper fibers.

Mid-tone Shade: Sky blue highlights to Bleu de France
Pantone 290U mild mids, R167 / G212 / B238, HTML 0xA7D4EE
Pantone 641U dark mids, R0 / G120 / B167, HTML 0x0078A7

Vandyke Brownprint

Bostick & Sullivan liquid Vandyke Brownprint emulsion
2.5ml VDB, 3gt citric acid 40%, 0gt Tween 20 10%
Dry time: 20min air, 20min fan, 40min complete
100% exposure == 7.5min, 2/3rds exposure == 5min

Grain & Bleed


Grain: Exhibits fantastic grain at each 5min & 7.5min exposures in all density ranges. Paper has little or no texture.

Bleed: No bleeding on 5min or 7.5min exposures between 100% to zero% at border space. White lettering on 100% density is visible with very little bleed onto lettering. 7.5min exposure bleed is ever so slight between 100% and the white lettering. Better initial wash agitation might tackle this.

Publicity Response

Black: 5min and 7.5min publicity produce very comparable 100% densities.

5min Publicity: Virtually appropriately exposed for the Silver correction, with the VDB & Ziatype not bringing within the highlights. The shadows are tending to be crushed, so greatest to brighten those up by leveling towards the highlights when utilizing this paper and the Silver correction.

7.5min Exposure: Barely overexposed in the Silver correction with the shadows crushed. As with the 5min publicity, have to brighten the shadows when using this paper and the Silver correction.

General: With exposure between 5min and 7.5min, and using the COT320 (c/v) or VDB (darkish) corrections, there’s a widespread floor where density ranges seem pure and highlights come into play.

Evaluation

Bergger COT320 does not require Tween. Good moist processing power. Good grain structure and exposure response displaying consistent density across the ranges. COT320 (c/v) or VDB (darkish) publicity corrections good starting points to get pure density ranges.

Mid-tone Colour: Warm neutral silver sepia brown
Pantone 476U, R110 / G94 / B82, HTML 0x6E5E52

Ziatype

Bostick & Sullivan Ziatype (Pd/Au/W / Pt), 16gt Fe, 15gt Pd, 1gt Au, 0gt Tween 20 10%
Dry time: 5min air, 5min fan, 10min complete to protect moisture (~60%rH @ ~72°F/22°C)
100% exposure == 7min, 2/3rds publicity == 4.5min

Grain & Bleed


Grain: Exceptionally nice grain.

Bleed: No bleed by any means from 100% to 0% densities or into superb white lettering on 100% dense areas.

Publicity Response

Black: Four.5min black could be very near the complete density of 7min exposure. Maximum density shall be nearer to 5min exposure occasions. Silver, VDB, and Ziatpe all cleared to zero% density.

4.5min Publicity: Very close to the right exposure for the Ziatype correction. Upwards of 5min to get full 100% density and get a slightly darker 10%.

7min Exposure: Overexposed for the Ziatype correction. The VDB (-) response begins to be right at this longer exposure time.

General: An exposure on the order of 5min with the Ziatype correction will provide probably the most consistent walk via the density ranges.

Evaluation

COT320 produces excellent pictures with a constant positive grain and fantastic wet processing potential. Good financial system of emulsion for lovely pictures at 32gt complete emulsion on eight×10 when brushed on with the Richeson 9010 artificial brush. This paper takes slightly longer to clear compared to Hahnemühle Platinum Rag. Clearing consists of two washes in pH 5-6 water adopted by Three-5min of HypoClear to filter out the remaining yellowing of emulsion to get to paper white.

Tonality enormously is determined by mixture of palladium (neutral), gold (cool), and tungsten (heat) in addition to humidity of the paper (much less moves image hotter).

Hahnemühle Platinum Rag, Hahnemühle

300gsm, 100% cotton, pure white (cream)

Processes – Cyanotype, Vandyke Brownprint, Ziatype

Ziatype

  • Commonplace Ziatype correction with ±5min exposure
  • Produces an outstanding image with consistent positive grain
  • No Tween wanted

Cyanotype

Bostick & Sullivan A/B power of 25g/100ml (A) & 10g/100ml (B)
1.5ml emulsion every A & B, 3gt citric acid 40%, 1gt Tween 20 10%
Dry time: 30min air, 30min fan, 60min complete
100% exposure == 21min, 2/3rds publicity == 14min

Grain & Bleed


Grain: Exhibits nice grain at both 14min & 21min exposures in all density ranges. Grain not quite as clean or consistent as COT320. Paper has very little texture.

Bleed: Slight bleed at 14min exposure between 100% to zero% at border space, more so with the 21min publicity. White lettering on 100% density is visible with bleeding onto lettering. 21min exposure bleed is ever so slightly worse than 14min publicity between 100% and the white lettering.

Exposure Response

Black: 21min exposure produces 100% density with 14min exposure not fairly reaching 100%. Silver, VDB, and Ziatpe corrections all cleared to 0% density.

14min Exposure: Barely overexposed in the shadows for the Silver correction, barely underexposed for the VDB correction, the Cyanotype horrendously incorrect, with the Ziatype correction crushing the shadows.

21min Exposure: Slightly overexposed with the VDB correction with the shadows calmly crushed. As with the 14min publicity, have to brighten the shadows when using this paper and the VDB correction.

General: With an exposure between 14min and 21min, the most effective results tend in the direction of the VDB (darkish) correction to lighten the shadows and convey within the highlights. The opposite choice is to use the COT320 (c/v) correction based mostly the silver response to do the identical – lighten the shadows and convey in the highlights.

Assessment

Comparable tonality, slightly more vibrant, in comparison with COT320 or Arches Platine. Bleed current from 100% to 0% densities at 21min publicity, much less bleed at 14min. Vital grain structure compared to COT320 & Arches Platine.

Comparable correction response to COT320, so using either the VDB (dark) or COT320 (c/v) corrections are good places to start to tune a picture with this process.

As with COT320 & Arches Platine, we’re unable to clear the Cyanotype out to paper white, leaving a very mild blue tint on the paper very similar to a delicate blueing remedy. Want to figure out how greatest to clear this paper with this process.

Mid-tone Colour: Slightly more of a vibrant blue than COT320 however general the identical hue. Sky blue highlights to Bleu de France mid tones.
Pantone 290U mild mids:  R167, G212, B238, HTML 0xA7D4EE
Pantone 641U dark mids: R0, G120, B167, HTML 0x0078A7

Vandyke Brownprint

Bostick & Sullivan liquid Vandyke Brownprint emulsion
2.5ml VDB, 3gt citric acid 40%, 1gt Tween 20 10%
Dry time: 20min air, 20min fan, 40min complete
100% exposure == 7.5min, 2/3rds exposure == 5min

Grain & Bleed


Grain: Exhibits vital grain at each 5min & 7.5min exposures in all density ranges. Paper has little or no texture. Tween might play a task in decreasing grain artifacting.

Bleed: No bleeding on 5min or 7.5min publicity between 100% to zero% at border space. White lettering on 100% density is visible with very little bleed onto lettering. 7.5min publicity bleed is ever so slight between 100% and the white lettering.

Publicity Response

Black: 5min and seven.5 minute publicity produce very comparable 100% densities.

5min Publicity: Underexposed with Silver being probably the most capable.

7.5min Exposure: Underexposed within the highlights with the Silver correction and the shadows overexposed and crushed. Have to brighten the shadows and darken the 10% highlight vary when using this paper and the Silver correction.

General: With publicity between 5min and 7.5min, utilizing the COT320 (c/v) correction, there could also be widespread floor where density ranges appear pure and highlights start to return in.

Evaluation

Comparable tonality, slightly warmer, in comparison with COT320 or Arches Platine. Clears ever so slightly better than Platine. Vital grain structure compared to these other high end papers.

Comparable correction response to COT320, so utilizing the COT320 (c/v) or VDB (darkish) publicity corrections are good starting points to get pure density ranges.

Mid-tone Shade: Heat(er) impartial silver sepia brown
Pantone 476U, R110 / G94 / B82, HTML 0x6E5E52

Ziatype

Bostick & Sullivan Ziatype (Pd/Au/W / Pt), 16gt Fe, 15gt Pd, 1gt Au, 3gt Tween 20 10%
Dry time: 5min air, 5min fan, 10min complete to protect moisture (~60%rH @ ~72°F/22°C)
100% publicity == 7min, 2/3rds publicity == Four.5min

Grain & Bleed


Grain: Exceptionally superb grain. Diametrically against what this paper does with VDB

Bleed: No bleed in any respect from 100% to zero% densities and very little into high quality white lettering on 100% dense areas.

Exposure Response

Black: 4.5min black could be very near the complete density of the 7min publicity. Most density can be nearer to 5min exposure occasions. Silver, VDB, and Ziatpe all cleared to 0% density.

Four.5min Exposure: Very near the right publicity for the Ziatype correction. Possible 5min to get full 100% density and get a slightly darker 10%.

7min Exposure: Overexposed for the Ziatype correction. The VDB (-) response begins to be right at this longer publicity time.

General: With an exposure of 5min the Ziatype correction will present probably the most constant stroll by way of the complete latitude of density ranges.

Assessment

Hahnemühle Platinum Rag produces excellent pictures with a constant fantastic grain and fantastic moist processing capacity. Good financial system of emulsion for lovely pictures at 32gt complete emulsion on eight×10 when brushed on with the Richeson 9010 synthetic brush.

Tween is required, anything from none to 3gt per 8×10 for Ziatype. This paper is simpler to clear in comparison with COT320. Clearing consists of two washes in pH 5-6 water followed by 2-3min of HypoClear to filter out the remaining yellowing of emulsion to get to paper white.

Tonality tremendously is dependent upon mix of palladium (impartial), gold (cool), and tungsten (warm) in addition to humidity of the paper (much less strikes picture hotter).

Canson 100 RGH/CP, Canson

Canson 100 Watercolour 300 lb, Rough, Vibrant White, mould-made, 100% cotton sheet. Two working surfaces, Chilly Press or Rough. Internally and externally sized. Tween is discouraged with this paper with VDB. A drop or two of gum arabic may be needed to keep this paper from absorbing an excessive amount of emulsion to shortly.

Processes – Vandyke Brownprint

Vandyke Brownprint

Tough Aspect of the Paper

Bostick & Sullivan liquid Vandyke Brownprint emulsion
3ml VDB onto 9×12 sheet, 3gt citric acid 40%, 0gt Tween 20 10%, 1gt gum arabic
Dry time: 20min air, 20min fan, 40min complete
100% exposure == 7.5min, 2/3rds publicity == 5min

Cold Press Aspect of the Paper

Bostick & Sullivan liquid Vandyke Brownprint emulsion
3ml VDB onto 9×12 sheet, 3gt citric acid 40%, 0gt Tween 20 10%, 1gt gum arabic
Dry time: 20min air, 20min fan, 40min complete
100% exposure == 7.5min, 2/3rds exposure == 5min

Grain & Bleed


Grain: Exhibits superb grain at both 5min & 7.5min exposures in all density ranges. The chilly press aspect has a little bit of texture to it which appears to visually manifest as grain. The rough aspect exhibits more grain, partially because of the rough texture. General, nevertheless, the paper exhibits a constant grain structure on each the rough and chilly press sides.

Bleed: Rough Paper Aspect – Very little bleeding on 5min or 7.5min publicity between 100% to 0% at border area The bleed we see is extremely contained just at the fast black/white border crossing. White lettering bleed from 100% density could be very barely visible at 5min and principally unreadable on the 7.5min exposure.

Bleed: Chilly Press Paper Aspect – The 7.5min exposure exhibits bleeding between 100% to zero% inside border area. The bleed we see is extraordinarily contained simply on the fast black/white border crossing. White lettering bleed from 100% density is in step with the rough aspect of the paper, being slightly visible at 5min and principally unreadable at the 7.5min publicity.

Publicity Response

Rough Aspect

Black: 5min and seven.5min exposures produce comparable 100% densities with the 5min exposure a barely lesser black than the 7.5min exposure.

5min Exposure: Underexposed across the board, with the Silver correction variants being probably the most succesful.

7.5min Exposure: Close to an anticipated density range with the Silver correction, very barely underexposed within the highlights and the shadows a bit crushed.

General: The COT320 (C/V) exposure response is nearly lifeless on for this paper with an publicity time between 5min and 7.5min

Chilly Press Aspect

Black: 5min and seven.5min exposures produce comparable 100% densities with the 5min publicity a slightly lesser black than the 7.5min publicity.

5min Exposure: Underexposed throughout the board, with the Silver correction variants being probably the most succesful and close to appropriately uncovered.

7.5min Publicity: Serviceable with the silver variants while being overexposed for these corrections.

General: The COT320 (C/V) exposure response is nearly lifeless on for this paper with an publicity time between 5min and 7.5min

Assessment

Each side of this paper are serviceable, with the tough aspect providing a singular backdrop for the developed picture. This paper exhibits tonal variations between the rough aspect vs. the cold press aspect, with tough being slightly extra yellow/orange as compared. The chilly press aspect is barely more mild delicate, leading to an publicity time difference between the two sides with cold press exposing quicker than rough. General, this paper produces a heat neutral silver sepia brown and takes superbly to gold / silver alternative with POP gold salt toning methods

Mid-tone Shade: Coyote Brown
CP Aspect: Pantone 161U,  R232 / G234 / B202, HTML 0x786249
RGH Aspect: Pantone 1545U, R122 / G95 / B72, HTML 0x7A5F48

Canson Montval, Canson

Processes – Cyanotype, Vandyke Brownprint:

Canson Watercolor Montval is a cooperative chilly press paper with nice image production. Good wet processing stability and clears nicely. Tween 20 10% at 1gt per 1ml emulsion is needed to get the sensitizer mix to soak into these paper’s fibers. Greatest to use 1gt per 1ml emulsion of citric acid 40% to each neutralize the carbonate alkali buffer within the paper as well as assist with clearing within the first wash water.

Fabriano Aquarelle, Fabriano

Fabriano Aquarelle HP 25% cotton has seen impurities as soon as paper is processed, poor wet processing means. Not really helpful for mild sensitive wet processes. This paper does nevertheless produce fantastic inkjet prints on the Canon Professional-1000 printer as a matte grade photograph paper.

Appendix A: Survey Collection by Process

Cyanotype

Vandyke Brownprint

Ziatype

Appendix B: Exposure Response Correction Curves

Appendix C: A Phrase About Negatives

The Publicity Response Correction Curve

All mild delicate materials (eg mild sensitive emulsions on paper) have a non-linear relationship to the light that falls on them, their publicity to mild. Permitting 100% of an quantity of light to succeed in a cloth for the correct quantity of time leads to 100% image density on the fabric. Nevertheless, working down by means of 90%, 80%, 70% … 30%, 20%, 10% transmission with the identical quantity of sunshine and publicity time doesn’t yield equally progressing densities on the fabric, as an alternative rising erratically from shadows to highlights. The relationship is just not linear but quite seen as an ’S’ formed publicity response curve. This mild sensitive response was first understood by a pair of researchers, Hurter & Driffield, whereas learning the sensitometric characteristics of sunshine sensitive silver compounds in the late 1880s and is usually known as the “H&D Curve”.

Understanding this, we see that shadows, highlights, and mid-tones expose at totally different charges to supply an accurate image with an anticipated density. Analog negatives, these negatives that began as mild sensitive supplies, have this non-linear characteristic and, shock shock, intently match the publicity characteristics of light delicate silver gelatin B&W photographic paper (the constructive). In flip, the adverse and constructive go hand in hand correcting the publicity charges, making a photographic print with linear picture density.

The place movie negatives and paper do not wed as expected, mitigation within the analog world includes movie improvement controls, graded papers, and variable distinction filter / paper lodging. An alternate route is to create and print a damaging from the digital realm and transfer on from there. Handcrafted digitally produced negatives should additionally, nevertheless, have their publicity response targeted to an identical constructive response – focused toward specific mild sensitive emulsion / paper mixtures. Understanding all of this, SEAP has generated characteristic response curves for the processes discussed. Our response curves are good beginning points with our working procedures, printing and exposure gear, papers, local water supply, temperature, humidity, and so on. All exposure correction graphs are proven in ‘Density % (0-100)’ view and the numeric tables in ‘Light (0-255)’ type to allow precision in curve creation. Modifying, tuning, recreating, and altogether ignoring these response curves are utterly acceptable and highly encouraged.

Getting ready the Digital Image

The exposure response curves documented on this Paper Survey have been created with a selected workflow to be practiced when creating a digital image, providing consistency throughout the broadest array of printers used to create digital negatives. We’ve got produced nice results on Epson and Canon skilled printers in addition to a easy HP Shade Laser Printer which produced serviceable negatives. Step one is appropriately establishing the image to supply a top quality digital unfavorable. Particularly, a B&W 16-bit picture set to a colour area of Adobe RGB. Photoshop is used in the setup examples, different picture modifying tools with these capabilities would work simply as nicely.

  • Picture is about to 16-bit
    • Photoshop: Image —> Mode —> 16-bits/Channel
  • Picture colour area is transformed to Adobe RGB
    • Photoshop: Edit —> Convert to Profile…
  • Image made B&W, which means all of R, G, and B channels are the same
    • Instance – Photoshop: Picture —> Adjustments —> Black & White…
    • Different methods embrace third celebration B&W conversion tools
    • Guarantee the picture remains in the Adobe RGB colour area

Creating the Unfavourable

You could apply the exposure correction curves on to the picture or layer upon layer. If layering, the stack up is the picture because the lowest layer, then the correction curve layer, then the ‘invert’ layer to make the whole thing unfavourable. First is to use the exposure correction curve for a selected course of / paper mixture. Lastly is to invert the image to make it ‘negative’. When printing, the image have to be flipped horizontal in the printer’s format settings to make the picture reversed from an emulsion viewpoint.

  • Apply the Correction Curve
    • Photoshop: Image —> Changes —> Curves
    • Sort the curve points in by hand after which save the curve for later use
  • Make the Destructive
    • Photoshop: Image —> Changes —> Invert

Printing the Damaging

The printing course of includes a couple of easy essential settings. At the core, we rely on the printing software, not the printer, for all colour management. The paper profile for OHP digital unfavorable materials is about to the printer’s Photograph Paper Shiny equal. The picture is printed “Flip horizontally” in the Print Settings / Format setup. The image is printed 16-bit with Perceptual Rendering Intent.

  • Print Dialog
    • Print Settings
      • Format: Flip Horizontally
      • Notice: We are making a unfavourable, so it needs to be reversed
    • Colour Dealing with: Software Manages Colors
      • Notice: We belief the system to supply usually constant photographs throughout printers and operating methods when shade administration is used. The printer shouldn’t handle colors on this case.
    • Send 16-bit Knowledge
      • Notice: We would like all out there pixel bit depth to be printed
    • Printer Profile: Photograph Paper Shiny
      • Notice: Quality OHP material intently matches Photograph Paper Glossy ink for densities
    • Rendering Intent: Perceptual
      • Observe: Simply a choice for consistency
    • Black Point Compensation enabled
      • Observe: Simply a choice for consistency

Appendix D: OHP Materials for Negatives

Digital Unfavourable OHP Supplies

OHP stands for Overhead Projector Material, a clear-ish plastic sheet used to create slides to be projected for shows. The brand new want is the creation of full sized digital negatives used in contact printing for analog print making processes the place mild shines down via the adverse and onto your mild sensitive paper. This OHP material is product of clear polyester sheets coated with grains of clear silica or ceramic. The opacity of the varied producer’s materials varies with Bergger PN100 (not obtainable) and Arista-II digital unfavourable OHP being the least opaque via Pictorico TPU100 within the mid-range and Pictorico TPS100 as the very best opacity digital destructive material. All are respectable supplies for creating digital negatives, good decisions for those with preferences. The upper opacity materials can carry more ink and require a barely longer publicity time to beat the bottom materials density, so plan on slight timing variances if mixing these OHP materials when creating of a physique of work.

Identify Branded Supplies

Arista-II digital unfavourable OHP, Freestyle Photographic Provides home model

At a decrease opacity than the Pictorico supplies, this OHP is completely serviceable and readily available in probably the most helpful sizes and rolls. As a result of its need to barely curl and its low opacity, we have now had to persuade our printer hardware to simply accept it.

Pictorico TPU100 & TPS100, Mitsubishi Imaging

Each of these flavors of Pictorico OHP, TPU100 found beneath the ‘Pictorico Premium OHP Transparency Film’ moniker and the higher density, more opaque, TPS100 discovered underneath the ‘Pictorico Ultra Premium OHP Transparency Film’ identify, lies flat with an excellent working thickness, feeding and imaging without concern on each the Canon Professional-1000 and Epson P800 printers. The TPS100 ultra premium materials is extra opaque than the much less dense TPU100 materials, designed for greater ink loading and extra exacting negatives.

As a youth within the late Nineteen Hundred and Sixties, Eric began with a Kodak 126 Instamatic and moved in the ’70s to an Olympus OM-1 – images turned locked into his psyche. The ’80s & ’90s have been a time of change with studies within the arts and humanities, the physiology of shade and perception, and the utilized sciences of math, physics, and chemistry. In parallel, a printmaking transfer to Cibachrome and the digital darkroom with pigmented quad-tone and colour inks solidified the will to combine analog and digital printmaking. An engineering profession within the nascent late ’80s know-how business turned priority over the subsequent 20 years; designing, patenting, and creating software & hardware methods for the creatives of the world, photographers and shade designers particularly. In winding down his twenty-seven yr effort to surprise and delight, it was time to once more merge into the world of lively artistic printmaking – forming the Particular Version Art Venture with its’ mission to inspire artists and create group for the trade of ideas and methods. Read extra on Special Editions Artwork Tasks web site.